Mining is the process of extracting essential mineral ores or geological substances of great value from rocks and earth’s surface, which can be used for a wide range of purposes. They can be used in industrial applications, in infrastructure or in home wares, or in jewellery or many other uses. Mining can be done for underground reserves or surface resources. The main types of mining can be identified as underground mining, open cast mining, strip mining, alluvial mining, quarrying mining and drilling. However, for the purpose of simpler understanding, we can broadly classify mining as placer mining, hydraulic mining, hard rock mining and open pit mining.
In placer mining, raw minerals are deposited on the surface of sand on beaches or places where the rivers or oceans touch the land. The sand is picked up manually and transported to separation plants. The heavy minerals are then separated according to their size to different grades. This kind of heavy mineral mining is done is Tamil Nadu in India by a leading mining company, V.V. Mineral. They deal with the mining, manufacture and export of minerals such as Zircon, Garnet, Rutile and Ilmenite.
Hydraulic mining is done with the use of high pressured water passing through the mineral rock, which breaks it and separates mineral ores from the rocks. Hard rock mining on the other hand is done by digging into solid rock to find the minerals. And lastly, open pit mining involves digging large open holes in rocks mostly done for the mining of Copper.